Johnny Fallon

Irish Political Commentator

Archive for the tag “Sinn Fein”

1994 – A timeline of Death that led to peace

20 years on it can be hard to recall just how dark things were in Ireland before the peace process. The summer of 1994 that led to the start of the process was a bloody and merciless few months. We can take peace for granted. There was no guarantee that the ceasefires would ever happen, indeed all the evidence seemed to suggest that it would be a summer of failure. This timeline records the moments in an effort to show just how difficult things were and how precarious the process was.

June 17 – UVF murders a Catholic Taxi Driver in Carrickfergus. A protestant building worker is killed in error in a separate UVF attack in Newtonabbey.

June 18 – Six men are killed and 5 wounded by the UVF as gunmen open fire in a pub in Loughlinisland as those in bar watched Ireland V Italy in World Cup. One of the dead, Barney Green was 87.

June 24 – Reynolds and Major hold a meeting in Corfu. British Government are sceptical of chances for peace. An agreement is reached that Dublin will change constitutional claim over territory of Northern Ireland. In return the British must change Government of Ireland Act and both sides agree to idea of North South bodies. Sinn Fein publishes report of its peace commission which finds 85 submission out of 228 calling for a 3 month ceasefire and also that the Downing Street Declaration only ensured Unionists would remain inflexible.

30 June – Report into Guildford 4 finds that the problem was ‘individual failures’ rather than failures of the system. Meanwhile Albert Reynolds pushes idea of North South Institutions saying that there is an important distinction between authority and co-operation.

6 July – In an important Dail speech that encourages the British Government, Dick Spring says that the Irish government does not want joint authority over NI but rather a political arrangement which would command the support of both traditions.

7 July – Prince Charles visits Derry.

9 July – UFF murders a Catholic man in Tyrone

10 July – The home of William McCrea is attacked by the IRA who fire over 40 shots at the house.

11 July – Ray Smallwoods of the UDP is shot Dead by the IRA

12 July The IRA attempts to smuggle explosives into the UK but a truck with two tons of explosives is intercepted in Lancashire. Albert Reynolds visits the US and promotes the idea of the economic benefits of peace saying that within months roads could be reopened and electricity interconnectors established. He makes clear that he believes the North could be demilitarised quickly too. However James Molyneaux dismisses Reynolds views and says that North South institutions are merely a stepping stone to Irish Unity.

16 July – Loyalist prisoners riot in Crumlin rd prison.

17 July – Body of Caroline Moreland is found in Fermanagh. She was executed by the IRA as an informer.

19 July – James Molyneaux meets with John Major in an attempt to shore up British government support. Major needs the Unionist party vote in parliament. After the meeting a satisfied Molyneaux says that the idea of North South bodies is ‘unreal’.

22 July – UFF kill a catholic man in Belfast.

24 July – Hopes of peace are dashed at a Sinn Fein Ard Fheis in Letterkenny. Gerry Adams suggests that the Downing Street declaration marked progress for the governments but little more than that he says it ‘does not deal adequately with the core issues and this is crucial’. The British government are deeply concerned by the development. Dublin maintains that it is still and evolving situation that requires more time.

28 July – Gardai find an arms cache in Co Meath. It contains 24 Kalashnikovs, a flame thrower, machine guns, a rocket Launcher, mortars, 30,000 rounds of ammunition and bomb making equipment.

29 July – The IRA mortar bomb the Newry police station injuring 40 people.

31 July – The IRA steps up activity, killing two leading UDA figures in Belfast. The British government starts to come under pressure about its peace strategy.

1 August – Dick Spring continues to talk to British counterparts to keep them on board but the situation is increasingly pressurised with both governments exposed to severe criticism. Albert Reynolds is making secret contact with the IRA through Fr Alex Reid.

3 August – Some fresh hopes emerge as Gerry Adams says that having met with the IRA leadership he is ‘guardedly optimistic’ of ceasefire prospects.

5 August – UVF murder a protestant man who they say was an informer in Belfast

7 August – The UVF enter the home of Kathleen O’Hagan, they believe her husband to have supported republicans in the past. Her husband is not there. Her children run and hide under a bed she stands over her baby crying in the cot and is shot several times. She was also pregnant at the time.

8 August – A part time member of the Royal Irish Regiment is murdered by the IRA in Co. Down.

9 August – Irish Media report that Loyalist paramilitaries have met and agreed that they will continue their campaign even if the IRA were to call a ceasefire. There are suggestions that both sides of the paramilitary divide contain a significant number who are opposed to any ceasefires and wish to force their opponents to continue.

10 August – The UFF shoot a Catholic security Guard in Belfast

11 August – A Catholic worker in a printers is murdered because the company prints An Phoblacht

12 August – Hugh Annesley of the RUC holds out an olive branch to paramilitaries suggesting that patrols could be reduced in the event of a ceasefire. Albert Reynolds tells Sean Duignan that the time has come for an ultimatum and that he is going to send a message to the IRA to say it’s now or never or they ‘can shag off’. He says they have a choice to support this move now or continue the killing for another 25 years but he intends to tell them if they do he will walk away and they will have nothing to show for their campaign except more dead bodies.

13 August – Tensions rise in Britain as an IRA bomb explodes in Bognor Regis while another is defused in Brighton.

14 August – The UFF murder a Catholic man in Belfast

15 August – John Bruton warns that Sinn Fein cannot be brought into talks without a complete cessation of violence. He warns against any contact with them and says that the worst possible outcome would be a ceasefire where the governments are later forced to relax the terms in order to keep them at the table under a threat of violence. Meanwhile Unionists are increasingly suspicious of John Majors contacts with the Irish government and Sammy Wilson describes the Tories as ‘treacherous’ suggesting that the Unionists should start talking to Labour.

17 August – IRA bomb explodes in a Protestant Bar in Belfast. Another bomb is found on the Shankill Road. Ian Paisley rubbishes talk of peace and says his party will not be taking part in any new dialogue.

18 August – Another IRA incendiary device destroys a protestant bar in Belfast. Amid fears that the IRA is increasing its campaign, Seamus Mallon says that the only hope is for a total and permanent ceasefire or the IRA will not be part of the process.

20 August – A republican march for peace is held in Dublin under the banner ‘Time for Peace – Time to go’. An estimated 10,000 people attend.

21 August – Michael Ancram says the British government will not accept any form of limited ceasefire. Albert Reynolds says that there was never any suggestion that a ‘ceasefire of 3 or 6 months would provide a seat at the table’. He says the IRA must be prepared to lay down arms for good.

25 August – American Congressman Bruce Morrisson leads a delegation that meets with the Irish Government before meeting Sinn Fein. The delegation excitedly tell Reynolds and Spring that they believe a 6 month ceasefire is about to be called and that they will encourage this. Reynolds and Spring are furious. The move threatens the entire process as the governments will not accept a time limit on the ceasefire and are anxious that the American support may encourage Republicans to only offer a short term ceasefire. They make clear that the delegation must convey the message that it is a permanent ceasefire.

26 August – Ten people are injured in an IRA mortar bombing in Co. Down. Accusations of ‘appeasement’ are made at the British government. Meanwhile Albert Reynolds receives a request for a VISA to the US for Joe Cahill. Cahill was a convicted IRA leader who had once been sentenced to hang and smuggled arms into Ireland from Libya. The request from Fr. Reid shocks Reynolds but it is said to be a gesture that would seal the deal. The IRA wish Cahill to brief their US supporters on the peace process and say it’s the only way they can carry their support. Reynolds contacts Jean Kennedy Smith, who in turn puts pressure on Nancy Sorderberg, but the message comes back emphatically that there are no more visas without a ceasefire first. All avenues turn up blank with no US government contacts willing to budge. Fr. Reid continues to pressure Reynolds saying it’s the last piece of the jigsaw.

28 August – Gerry Adams and John Hume issue a joint statement focussing on the need for democratic principles and the right of the people for self determination. The statement also says that different traditions must be respected.

29 August – Reynolds contacts Sorderberg personally making an impassioned plea for a visa for Joe Cahill. He says that this will deliver peace but without it trust is lost. Soderberg agrees to talk to President Clinton but says the proposal has ‘no chance’. Clinton rings Reynolds at 3 AM and tells him he is looking for the impossible. Reynolds makes the case that it will deliver the ceasefire but Clinton counters that a visa for Adams had not done so yet and they had stuck their neck out then, offending the British. Clinton is angry to be asked to do this and says if the IRA were this close to a ceasefire then they would have a statement ready and yet nobody has seen it. Reynolds announces he has the statement in his pocket but he has given his word not to reveal it and he asks the President to trust him. Clinton is unhappy but Reynolds says he will send Fr Reid to Belfast to ask their permission. Fr Reid comes back some hours later with the agreement of the IRA that Reynolds can read the document to Clinton. Afterwards Clinton finally agrees, as do the British. Clinton tells Reynolds ‘We’ll go for it but this is the last chance. If this doesn’t run I never want to hear from you again.’

30 August – Gerry Adams says he now believes the conditions exist for peace. He calls for an immediate recognition of Sinn Fein’s ‘political mandate’.

31 August – The IRA declare an end to their campaign and the Irish peace process begins. Despite bumps along the way and a short-lived resumption of IRA activities in 1996, the process eventually delivers the good Friday agreement. 20 years later Northern Ireland still has many problems to face. However, a cycle of death was stopped. 1994 saw a dangerous round of brutal tit for tat killings and all negotiations took place against a backdrop of bombings and murder. Ireland did manage to shift the majority of debate in a political direction however and the everyday killings that made a generation immune to violence are now a memory. Great risks were taken but there is no question but that thousands of lives have been saved in these years.


Irish Politics, It’s like booking a holiday…

Ah yes, its summer. That time of year when we all start to head off on a holiday somewhere nice and sunny. Ireland is a country that’s badly in need of a holiday but if our political parties are the tour operators then that is where we start to have a problem.

You see we used to go on holiday with one tour operator for many years. This operator, Fianna Fail, gave us some very good holidays. They also gave us some bad experiences but in the main we were feeling ok, especially in recent times when we went to some lovely destinations. They normally partnered with a smaller local operator for tours and they often had to change these and told us that any problems were down to them. These smaller local operators (PDs and Greens) did not fill us with confidence but we went along with them as part of the package.

It was all fine until a few holidays ago. We wanted a real break and felt we deserved it. We decided to treat ourselves and go to Barbados. It wasn’t cheap but Fianna Fail told us it was well within our reach so what the hell? We work hard, now it was time to relax and enjoy it. The problem was when we got off the plane we were not in Barbados we were in….Bratislava. We quickly mentioned that there must be a mistake, but to our surprise, instead of sorting it out and finding us another flight out, the tour reps smiled and shrugged saying ‘We are where we are, you might as well try to enjoy it’. Well, we now felt like right tools walking around in our floral shirts and Bermuda shorts in Bratislava. There wasn’t even a pool. When we asked the local operator, the Greens, if there was anything for us to do or see here, they looked at us blankly and said ‘We never intended to end up here either’. It was the most miserable holiday of our lives and we swore never, ever again. Fianna Fail had broken our trust and no matter what went before, this was a disaster too far. On the flight home, FF ditched the guys who sold us the holiday and put up an ‘under new management’ sign, but it was too little too late. We marched into them and told them we were taking our business away for good. That felt great at the time, but it’s almost a little scary that as we plan this year’s holiday we are starting to feel like we may have no option but to go back to them. Why? Oh well that’s because of last years holiday.

You see we decided to get away from FF and went to another company we had holidayed with the odd time FG/Labour. Now we had some bad experiences with them 30 years ago but it was all changed now, they had proven themselves fairly solid. We also remembered the some good holidays we had spent in their company. At least they never had the utter disaster we experienced with the whole Bratislava business. FG/Labour were very eager for our business. That felt good too. They had special health insurance, a 5 point plan for a good holiday, handy checklists, and they told us we could start paying into a holiday fund month by month and then choose our destination when the time came. It was perfect. If we saved hard we could be on our way to Barbados soon. Finally after much saving in the holiday fund, they sent out the brochure with this years options. It was a rather flimsy affair. We had saved all our money with them and now they tell us there is only one destination this year…..Bratislava. We were very angry. We went into the office and demanded an explanation as to why they had told us so much was possible. They just smiled broadly and said ‘Oh but it is, its all still possible…just not yet….new destinations will be coming on stream in the next 5 to 10 years just stick with us’. We tried pointing out that they didn’t tell us this at the time but it was no use. We ask if at least the new health insurance is on offer……they smile ‘Oh it will will be…eventually’. We point out that everything in the Bratislava holiday is exactly what FF had given us the last time but the soothe us as they walk us dejectedly out of the office by saying ‘Ah but yes, the difference is this time you are not travelling with FF, the last time you thought you were going to Barbados, at least this time we told you before you got on the plane? Isn’t that so much better?’

Perhaps we were being harsh. Maybe Bratislava would be fun. But it wasn’t, it was the same old thing as the year before and we felt even more cheated. We went to the local operator, Labour, to see if they had at least got some exciting day trips, only they told us no, apparently FG had not accounted for any of their things in the price and that they were not allowed bring us anywhere, it was a matter to take up with FG. Bloody marvellous. The only difference this year was we had a jumper on and that was about as much comfort as we could take. We began to idly wonder if FF had learned a lesson, but we seriously doubted it.

So where to next? Well there’s a few people endlessly talking about setting up a new tour operator but they just don’t seem to be able to organise themselves. There is another sizeable company Sinn Fein. The problem with these guys is that they do the extreme holidays. They are the company we went with when we finished the Leaving Cert or after first year exams in college. They are great for the under 25s. They do all the radical stuff. The problem is we don’t really want that kind of holiday anymore. Sure it was all great fun at the time but now we like something a bit more relaxed and stable. We didn’t care at 18 but now we have bills and responsibilities and we were never quite convinced that the Insurance policy SF offered, should something go wrong, was really adequate. There were stories from years ago about people that never came back but at least they appeared to have sorted all that out now. Still though, we are a bit long in the tooth to going extreme snowboarding in Tibet. Now maybe if SF partnered with FG or FF and we got a more normal destinations and a bit more relaxing but with better service then we might consider it. However SF told us they don’t do partnerships so it’s off the agenda for now.

We had friends who went with some independent operators. These were fairly ok but the problem is it’s a lot of work. Its like booking from Dublin to London with one operator, then he gives you a number of a fella to ring when you get there and he can get you from London to Paris, then he has a number for a guy that might put you up for a few nights before another guy can get you a connecting flight to somewhere else. Its all a bit disorganised and you don’t really get looked after the way we want. It’s a bit like backpacking around the world on your own steam. Its grand and you manage it and end up with great stories to tell, but in reality at this stage of life we don’t have time for that craic and have long thrown out our rucksacks.

So maybe we should forget holidays and just stay at home until the operators sort themselves out. Maybe we should return to FF crossing our fingers that they have learned and are not going to laugh heartily as the drop us in outer Mongolia, maybe we should stick with the guys we have now, FG/Lab, see if they come good on their word eventually? Even if they are about as much excitement as a sleepover at Danas house. Or maybe we cud risk the SF or Independent route and relive our youth? Ah who are we kidding? They all have the same governing body, the troika, and their idea of a holiday for us is a two night midweek in Tubbercurry.

Fiscal Compact Treaty debate far from enlightening

Today in the Irish Independent Online I take a look at the debate of the referendum on RTE’s ‘Frontline’ programme. Sad to say but for me the debate was very much a disappointment……….

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